Emotional Resilience Blog from The Fear Course

The latest research, realisations and thinking in the world of emotional resilience, anxiety and fear reduction from around the world.

Published Research about emotional resilience, anxiety, fear and all associated topics

The key role of emotion regulation in being adaptable

The key role of emotion regulation in being adaptable

This post comes from The Oxford Review - www.oxford-review.com.

Their blog of other research findings can be found here: http://www.oxford-review.com/blog

 

Being adaptable at work – its all about job satisfaction, performance and this…

I was in a local Chinese take-away last night and asked if a certain dish could be done without the chicken being in batter. The answer was “no”. So I asked if the next dish down contained chicken without batter. The answer was “yes”. So I then asked why, as they cooked everything fresh (it is actually cooked in front of you) I couldn’t have the chicken without the batter in the sauce from the first dish. The response was “No it’s not possible”. When I asked why that answer was, “Because this dish has chicken with batter. Chicken without the batter is not possible in this dish!”. One of the chefs then came over and asked what the problem was. When I told him he said “Yes that’s not a problem”.

Adaptability

Adaptability is the ability of an individual, team or organisation to adjust or change itself to best meet the needs of the situation or environment. So that if change occurs, an adaptable person or team will adjust and find how best to perform in the new situation themselves, as opposed to having to be retrained. Adaptable staff, particularly frontline staff can make all the difference to changing customer needs and the profitability of a company for instance.

A research paper due to be published in May (yes, we are that on top of the research!) in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services reports on a study that looks at what it is that helps create adaptability in employees, particularly frontline staff.

The researchers looked at a large sample of 711 frontline staff and measured their level of adaptability, their level of job satisfaction, performance and emotional intelligence.

Findings

What they discovered was:

  1. People with higher levels of emotional intelligence and emotional resilience are significantly more likely to be able to adapt to new and changing situations.
    1. It is thought this is because people with higher levels of emotional intelligence are more likely to be able to empathise (to show sensitivity to others’ perspective and feelings), and are more likely to be able to regulate their own emotions (emotional resilience) in the face of change and shifting requirements of the job.
    2. There is also a lot of evidence to show that people with better emotional resilience (emotion regulation skills) tend to be able to reappraise situations more quickly and change their view and appreciation of the situation as things change.
    3. Both emotional intelligence and emotion regulation skills have also been shown to help people deal better with conflict, both interpersonal conflict and things like conflicting demands.
    4. That people with better levels of emotional resilience (emotional intelligence) and emotion regulation skills tend to be better both verbal and non-verbal (body language) communicators.
  2. That people who are more adaptable tend to have greater job satisfaction. This confirms a number of other studies showing similar results.
  3. Lastly, that there is a link between job performance and adaptability over the long term. This they think is linked to role flexibility and the ability to understand the context the job sits in.

So if you want more flexible employees, developing emotional intelligence and emotional resilience (emotion regulation skills) is the way to go. And you will get happier workers who perform better.

Reference

Sony, M., & Mekoth, N. (2016). The relationship between emotional intelligence, frontline employee adaptability, job satisfaction and job performance. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 20-32

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Dealing with anxiety - important new research

Dealing with anxiety - important new research

It has been known for a long time that people suffering from anxiety process information differently compared to people who don't have anxiety. People who suffer from anxiety are much more likely to appraise a situation, even a neutral situation as a threat than people without an anxiety disorder. In effect people with anxiety disorders are invariably hyper-sensitive to situations, and are frequently searching for threat or something to worry about compared to those who don't suffer from anxiety.

This hyper sensitivity is associated with significantly increased activity in a couple of areas of the brain, particularly the older limbic parts in the centre of the brain and the prefrontal cortex, just behind our forehead. Additionally anxiety sufferers display higher and different heart rate functioning when they perceive a threat.

This new study by colleagues at my own university, the University of Oxford, and the University of Bristol, University College London (UCL) and Universitaire Vaudois in  Switzerland carried out a ground breaking series of experiments looking at the responses of a group of anxiety sufferers compared to an equal umber of non-sufferers.

What they did was present everyone (both anxiety and non-anxiety sufferer) with a set of images whilst they were in an fMRI scanner and whilst they were also monitoring their heart response.

They got the subjects to do two tasks whilst their brain activity and heart responses were being monitored and they were being presented with the images.

The first task was to do nothing but watch the images. A number of the images were considered to be threat images. In this condition they found what they expected. The anxiety sufferers responded with anxiety to each of the threat images faster and with a greater response than the non anxiety sufferers. The anxiety sufferers also frequently reacted to the non-threat images. No surprise there.

They then taught all of the people in the experiment an emotion regulation technique based on a couple of techniques we use on the Fear Breakthrough Course. These techniques, known as reappraisal techniques basically get people to see things differently.

This time, when anxiety sufferers used the emotion regulation techniques they saw the effect immediately both in the brain and with their heart responses. Not only did the techniques reduce the hyper-activity within the brain, it also had an immediate effect of reducing the heart response to the threat. What surprised the researchers was that in many cases the techniques actually reversed the effects of the anxiety induced hyper-activity.

In effect what this means is that the techniques we use not only reduce the level of anxiety at the time but have the power to reverse the effects of the anxiety and stop it happening altogether.

Reference

A Reinecke et al (2015) Effective emotion regulation strategies improve fMRI and ECG markers of psychopathology in panic disorder: implications for psychological treatment action. Translational Psychiatry (2015) 5, e673; doi:10.1038/tp.2015.160

 

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Is the music you listen to increasing your anxiety?

Is the music you listen to increasing your anxiety?

A new study from scientists in Finland and Denmark looking at the effects of music on emotional states like anxiety, neuroticism and depression has found that a significant number of us use music (whether consciously or unconsciously) to regulate or deal with our emotions. Most people prefer happy upbeat music which has been shown in past experiments to help elevate our mood. Indeed we have been using music in one of our techniques for dealing with anxiety triggers for years with stunning success.


This study however shows that people who habitually listen to sad, ‘moody' or aggressive music are significantly more likely to suffer from anxiety and neuroticism than those that don’t.


Importantly the researchers also discovered during fMRI studies that such music suppresses part of the brain that helps us regulate or change our emotions. This effect was particularly prevalent in men.


This means that sad and aggressive music not only induces anxiety but can also prevent us from getting out of anxious and down moods.

Reference

Carlson E, Saarikallio S., Toiviainen P., Bogert B., Kliuchko M., and Brattico E. (2015) Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 9:466. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00466

 

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Suffer from anxiety? Your reaction times could have predicted it...

Suffer from anxiety? Your reaction times could have predicted it...

A number of research studies over the years have shown that people suffering from anxiety and depression tend to take longer to react to situations, particularly new and unusual situations. This effect is made worse when there is a potential for loss or any form of perceived risk in the new situation or circumstances or the individual is under stress.

A new study from a team of researchers from University of Edinburgh, University of Southampton, University College London, Sackler Institute of Psychobiological Research, University of Glasgow, and The Rockefeller University, New York City has shed some important new light on this phenomenon.

The researchers followed a group of 705 people from their 16th birthday until they were 36 years old and measured, among other things, their anxiety levels and reaction times.

They found that not only do people with anxiety and depression tend to react slower to situations and make slower decisions but that people who have slower reaction times as adolescents tend to be at significantly more risk of developing anxiety and depression later in life. This direction of effect was not expected. There appears to be some mechanism that increases an individuals susceptibility to anxiety and depression that is connected to how fast they react and make decisions at an earlier age.

Clearly some anxieties are created from increased levels of analysis (worry about possible outcomes etc.), and also that an individuals ability to process information is connected to the level of stress they are under (known as allostatic load). However it would appear that reaction and decision making time can be a predictor of anxiety and depression.

Reference

Gale, C. R., Batty, G. D., Cooper, S. A., Deary, I. J., Der, G., McEwen, B. S., & Cavanagh, J. (2015). Reaction Time in Adolescence, Cumulative Allostatic Load, and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adulthood: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychosomatic medicine.

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The 1 Thing That Predicts If You Will Get General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

The 1 Thing That Predicts If You Will Get General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

It is now generally accepted by professionals that people who suffer from GAD (General Anxiety Disorder or Generalized Anxiety Disorder) tend to get into such a situation because they have been unwittingly engaging in what are termed 'maladaptive coping strategies'.

In other words people with GAD tend to have been using coping techniques to life in general and anxiety in particular, which actually end up making their situation worse. I have reported in previous blogs for example the role avoidance has in strengthening anxiety. It has been found for example that distraction and avoidance techniques used by some therapists can at first mask and then later exacerbate GAD.

A study just published by colleagues at the Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, in Canada has added considerably to our understanding of GAD and what contributes to the onset or creation of this disorder.

The researchers looked at the extent to which 217 people were able to tolerate distress, particularly distress emanating from what are considered to be the 6 prime trigger experiences for distress in humans:

  1. Uncertainty
  2. Negative emotions
  3. Ambiguity
  4. Frustration
  5. Physical discomfort, and
  6. The perceived consequences of anxiety

They then measured the subjects for symptoms of GAD and found that GAD sufferers were significantly less likely to be able to tolerate distress from each of the six prime trigger experiences than other people, including people with depression. In effect what they found was that a lack of tolerance for distress is a prime indicator for the development of GAD. This is not the case for depression.

Further they discovered that the level of tolerance an individual has for physical discomfort can be used as a sole predictor for whether or not an individual is likely to end up with GAD.

Whilst the study in itself is interesting, it does provide further insight into therapeutic interventions which can most effectively help GAD sufferers. Building emotional resilience is a key part of the process of recovery from GAD.

 

 

Reference

MacDonald, E.M. etal (2014) An Examination of Distress Intolerance in Undergraduate Students High in Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Oct 2014 DOI: 10.1080/16506073.2014.964303

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Is it better to have a high EQ or a high IQ? New research.

Is it better to have a high EQ or a high IQ? New research.

Is it better to have a high EQ or a high IQ?

Transcript

An intriguing study from Switzerland has just been published looking at the effects of IQ (Intelligence) and EI (Emotional Intelligence) on how others perceive and evaluate us. Just because you have a high IQ does not mean you will have a high EI and vice versa.


Anyway the study from the University of Lucerne looked at whether people would evaluate people with high IQ better than people with a high EI during a presentation task.
What the study found was that when doing presentations individuals low in IQ but high in EI performed as well (were evaluated by strangers as highly) as the high IQ individuals. In effect people with high EI tend to be able to compensate and level the playing field, during initial evaluation of their performance compared with people with higher IQ's.

 

SeminarOct14

 

Reference
Fiori, M (2014) Emotional intelligence compensates for low IQ and boosts low emotionality individuals in a self-presentation task. Personality and Individual Differences. Sept.2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.013

 

 

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What Causes Social Anxiety? New Research

What Causes Social Anxiety? New Research

Social anxiety is one of the most frequent and debilitating anxieties around. The effects range from mild discomfort in social situations to full scale avoidance of and panic attacks during social events and even phobic responses such as agoraphobia. A series of research studies examining this common series of anxieties have found that people who have at some stage in their life been a victim of bullying, criticism and or rejection in any situation are significantly more likely to develop a social anxiety compared to the rest of the population.
Indeed the definition of a social anxiety centres around the fear of scrutiny or negative evaluation/judgement by others. This usually results in people having the feeling that they are not good enough for other people, and/or the assumption that others will automatically reject them and includes often intense feelings of insecurity in a wide range of situations.

It is estimated that about 1 in 5 or 20% of the population suffer from some form of social anxiety. This can be a severely debilitating and distressing disorder for the sufferer which can have massive negative effects on the quality of life of the sufferer and as a result I pay particular attention to research in this area. A student at University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Klint Fung has just gained his Masters this month with an interesting series of experiments which helps us to understand a bit more about social anxiety.

What Fung did was get a group of 88 people and initially test them for their level of social anxiety. He then subjected them to an experimental social event where they would be either rejected (rarely interacted with) or included (frequently positively interacted with) in the activity of the event. All the participants were then invited to a second social event.
The research found that rejection or inclusion from just one event had a significant effect on the anxiety the individuals felt towards and during the second event. Importantly it was discovered that virtually all of the anxiety experienced stemmed from the hurt feelings induced during the first event.

It would appear and is backed up by other research that how hurt we feel following an incident can then predict how sensitive we are likely to be to the possibility of future exclusion especially when this is interpreted as rejection by the individual.

What this and other pieces of research shows is that treatment which helps to reduce sensitivity to exclusion and helps the individual to regulate their own emotions (prevent the hurt feelings) is likely to be most effective. Certainly from my experience the development of emotion regulation techniques coupled with cognitive reappraisal (both strategies I teach) have a significant impact on social anxiety disorders.
Indeed one client I finished with this week went from agoraphobic (unable to leave the house due to social anxiety) to returning to work in 16 days.

On Wednesday 3rd September I will be running a live online seminar about 'How We Catch Fear and Anxiety'. Click here for more details.

Free Live Seminar - How we catch Fear and anxiety - September 3rd

References
Fung, K. (2014) How does rejection induce social anxiety? A test of hurt feelings as a mechanism. University of British Columbia - Masters Thesis August 2014.

Levinson, C. A., Langer, J. K., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2013). Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults. Behavior Therapy, 44(3), 470-478.

Lissek, S., Levenson, J., Biggs, A. L., Johnson, L. L., Ameli, R., Pine, D. S., & Grillon, C. (2008). Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in social anxiety disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(1), 124-132.

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A simple way to help with exam nerves - new research

A simple way to help with exam nerves - new research

Researchers from Universities in the Netherlands and Australia have just published an interesting paper reporting on a series of experiments they conducted on school children taking exams.

One of the big problems that anxiety causes during exams is that it degrades performance significantly. In particular it it uses up valuable processing power in the brain, particularly in the areas used for working memory, which is a vital component especially during tests. We use the working memory to store short term information whilst we are working things out during an exam.

The researchers tested the hypothesis that if the students simply read through all of the questions before starting to answer anything, this would in effect reduce some of the anticipatory anxiety and as a consequence lower the loading on the working memory. The result of this should be more 'space' for problem solving and therefore better results.

The researchers showed the method of reading through all of the questions before putting pen to paper to 50% of a group of 117 students, chosen at random before a real exam. Those students that did read through the exam paper first performed significantly better than those that didn't. Additionally the students who carried out the tactic reported lower levels of anxiety during the exam compared to those that didn't.
Interestingly this tactic worked regardless of the level of anxiety the student was experiencing before the exam.

I have a free live webinar you can join next Wednesday all about the latest research on How We Catch Fear and Anxiety. Click here to find out more and book a free place.

 

Free Online Seminar - How We Catch Fear And Anxiety

 

Reference

Mavilidi, M., & Hoogerheide, V (2014) A Quick and Easy Strategy to Reduce Test Anxiety and Enhance Test Performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 1099-0720 August 2014 DOI: 10.1002/acp.3058

 

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Does it matter if your friends are online or face-to-face? How to be happy.

Does it matter if your friends are online or face-to-face? How to be happy.

There are a lot of assumptions about the value of online friends versus face-to-face friends (in the flesh as it were) and the impact of these on our general level of happiness and well-being, what is known as Subjective Well-Being or SWB by researchers. Usually it is assumed that face-to-face contact is superior to online contact, but is it true?

A student researcher, Lena Holmberg at the Örebro University in Sweden looked at this very question and the answer may surprise you.

In her thesis, published yesterday, Holmberg examined the levels of social connectedness of 293 young adults aged between 18 and 48 and their levels of happiness. Social connectedness refers to three things:

  1. the desire people have to create and maintain relationships
  2. the social bonds you have with others, and
  3. the feeling of belongingness that results from these bonds

What she found was that there is no difference in terms of the amount of happiness that online or offline friends brought to the people in the study. She did however find that often the most happy people had what they would term as more genuine online friends than the others.

It would appear from this study that the the more genuine friends you have have happier you will be. It would also appear that it is easier to maintain relationships, build deeper social bonds and get a greater feeling of belonging through online social networking.

If anyone wants to connect with me on Linked-in my profile is here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/centrei

 

References

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Grieve, R., Indian, M., Witteveen, K., Tolan, G., & Marrington, J. (2013). Face-to-face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online? Computers In Human Behavior,29(3), 604-609. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.017

Holmberg, L. (2014) Seeking Social Connectedness Online and Offline: Does Happiness Require Real Contact?. Thesis. Örebro University. Available at http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:736737/FULLTEXT01.pdf.

 

 

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Why the Fear of the Fear is More Damaging than the Original Fear

Why the Fear of the Fear is More Damaging than the Original Fear

When someone gets anxious or has a fear the feelings, thoughts, memories, physical sensations and other internal experiences the the fear or anxiety bring about are frequently so unpleasant that the individual will do just about anything to avoid them. This fear of the fear, or more correctly the fear of the effects of the fear is so distressing for many people that even talking about the issue is a problem. The distress is often heightened when there is no apparent direct cause or fear as occurs with GAD or General Anxiety Disorder or SAD Social Anxiety Disorder. There is a fear that these feelings could strike at any time.

It is not surprising then that people with fear and anxiety often end up not just avoiding the object of the anxiety, if there is one, but also of the resultant feelings, thoughts, memories, physical sensations and other internal experiences. This second type of avoidance is known as Experiential Avoidance.

Recent research has shown that how one reacts to the emotions and feelings that result from the anxiety makes a huge difference as to whether the individual is likely to get worse or not.

A swath of research is showing that people who are unwilling to experience the feelings, thoughts, memories, physical sensations and other internal experiences associated with the anxiety are much more likely to find the symptoms escalating and deeper problems arising.

Part of the problem is avoidance can only ever be a temporary relief and will never 'fix or solve' the problem. It merely side-steps the issue, which means that it is left still to face later. This is one reason why people who engage in avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy keep having the same and often escalating problem.

Another issue is that avoidance of anything psychologically reinforces the idea that the thing, in this case the feelings and thoughts, being avoided are bad or even dangerous in some way.

In order to avoid something requires that you end up focussing on and in many cases often obsessing about the very thing you are trying to avoid. This then means that the individual is focussing and obsessing about a negative. This takes time and effort and in effect crowds out all the other experiences of being a human, many of which are positive and joyful. As the individual focusses more and more on avoiding the horrible feelings and experiences, less and less concentration is placed on the positive things in life. In effect it becomes a negative vortex, dragging the individual down, often resulting eventually in depression, OCD, resorting to drugs and alcohol, self-harming, restricting food intake and even suicide.
We are finding that all of these problems frequently stem from Experiential Avoidance.

This is one of the reasons I deal with the avoidance as a matter of importance whilst treating the presenting anxiety and help the individual develop better and more effective emotion regulation strategies.

 

 

 

References

Chawla, Neharika; Ostafin, Brian (2007). "Experiential avoidance as a functional dimensional approach to psychopathology: An empirical review". Journal of Clinical Psychology 63 (9): 871–90. doi:10.1002/jclp.20400.PMID 17674402.

Gámez, Wakiza; et al (2011). "Development of a measure of experiential avoidance: The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire". Psychological Assessment23 (3): 692–713. doi:10.1037/a0023242. PMID 21534697.

Hayes, Steven C.et al (1999). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-481-2.

Hayes, Steven C. Et Al (1996). "Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64 (6): 1152–68. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152. PMID 8991302.

Losada, A. etal (2014) Development and validation of the experiential avoidance in caregiving questionnaire (EACQ). Aging & Mental Health. Volume 18, Issue 7, 2014

 

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First Emotional Resilience Video Research Brief

Please let me know what you think. Is this useful?

 

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Do Better Emotion Regulation Skills Help With Depression?

There is a growing and very strong body of evidence to show that enhancing your emotion regulation skills can make a significant difference to things like anxiety disorders, fear, nerves and general confidence and shyness issues. There is also a common perception in the medical and therapeutic circles that better emotion regulation skills can help with depression as well. However this last perception had not been scientifically tested... until now.

A study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology did just that. Researchers in Germany assessed 152 people who had been hospitalised with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) for their levels of emotion regulation skills (the techniques we teach) four times in just a three week period. Over that period they showed the patients how to do a series of emotion regulation skills.

What they found was quite startling.

They discovered that learning emotion regulation skills has a clear positive effect and significantly reduced the symptoms of the disorder. Additionally they discovered that the techniques which enabled the patients to tolerate negative emotions and to actively modify undesired emotions were the most effective in reducing the severity of the depressive symptoms.

The researchers concluded with a call for emotion regulation techniques to be shown early in the diagnosis of depression.

I would add my agreement with this and go further that these should be the first line of defence. In fact teaching emotion regulation techniques at school, I believe would reduce the incidence of depression and anxiety significantly. Given the costs of these two disorders (see my last blog The Cost of Anxiety) such prevention would pay dividends to the individuals, society at large and reduce the burden on the health services.

 

 

Reference

Radkovsky. A., etal (2014) Successful emotion regulation skills application predicts subsequent reduction of symptom severity during treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 82(2), Apr 2014, 248-262

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The Cost of Anxiety

The Cost of Anxiety

It is widely known in the medical research community that anxiety disorders are the most common disorders there is, bar none. Not only are anxiety disorders the most frequently suffered disorder there is, a research paper published in journal Neuropsychopharmacology worked out that in the US alone in 2002 anxiety cost about 100 Billion dollars or £58,326,044,000 per year, which is the last reliable estimate of the general cost of anxiety. Given that this was firstly back in 2002 and secondly just in the US, which only accounts for about 4,44% of the worlds population you can start to get some idea of the size of the problem.

The cost obviously goes way beyond the financial burden, in terms of the incalculable effects it has on people's lives on a daily basis. Especially when you take into account the reduction in opportunities anxiety causes. Right now as I write this I have personal clients who:

  • couldn't go out,
  • wouldn't fly,
  • found it hard to speak at meetings,
  • got flustered and avoided social events, meetings, dating and a whole host of other social situations,
  • couldn't go shopping,
  • wouldn't drive,
  • wouldn't be a passenger in a car being driven by someone else,
  • couldn't go for job interviews,
  • wouldn't take a promotion,
  • avoided public places,
  • avoided intimate relationships,
  • were putting off an operation,

and that is just the start. The cost to these people in terms of the reduced opportunities and social functioning cannot be put into monetary terms. Not only that the emotional cost is almost impossible to articulate. Until you have had a panic or anxiety attack, or found yourself avoiding things or had depression, it is very difficult to understand what this does inside to a person.

The cost does not end there. There is now a growing body of evidence about the direct and indirect health costs of anxiety disorders. For example people with an anxiety disorder are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease, and twice as likely to die from some form of heart problem or a heart attack as the people without anxiety. Additionally as I reported in 'People with anxiety are more likely to develop depression' people with anxiety are 50-70% more likely to develop depression than the general population. Further there are a whole host of other health problems associated with anxiety which greatly effect the quality of life like cancer and cost the individual in mental and emotional ways beyond just financial costs.

And yet if you go to the doctors with any anxiety disorder the frequent response is to be put on a waiting list for online CBT or anti-depressants. Whilst I understand the primacy physical illnesses like coronary and cancer ( See 'Links between anxiety and cancer' ) care has, it is about time anxiety disorders also got the attention and priority other illnesses have form the medical professions. Anxiety which often either underlies, predicts or complicates the physical illness or as reported here '(The effects of pre-operation anxiety on the recovery of heart surgery patients') actually exacerbates or worsens the prognosis of the patient.

Anxiety treatment and prevention needs to become a priority for all of the health services. It's not like there is a lack of evidence.

 

 

References

Bardeen, J.R. etal (2014) Exploring the relationship between positive and negative emotional avoidance and anxiety symptom severity: The moderating role of attentional control. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Volume 45, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 415–420

Chalmers J, Quintana DS, Abbott MJ and Kemp AH (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis. Front. Psychiatry 5:80. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00080

Fagundes, C.P. etal (2014) Attachment Anxiety is Related to Epstein-Barr Virus Latency. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (2014), doi: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2014.04.002

Jacobson N.C. & Newman, M.G. (2014) Avoidance mediates the relationship between anxiety and depression over a decade later. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 28 (2014) 437-445.

Kessler, R. C., & Greenberg, P. E. (2002). The economic burden of anxiety and stress disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress, 67, 982-992.

Kravitz HM, Schott LL, Joffe H, Cyranowski JM, Bromberger JT (2014) Do anxiety symptoms predict major depressive disorder in midlife women? The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). Psychological Medicine [2014:1-10] DOI: 10.1017/S0033291714000075

Mohanty, S. et al (2014) Baseline anxiety impacts improvement in quality of life in atrial fibrillation undergoing catheter albtion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(12_S):. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(14)60395-8

Rubertsson, C et al. (2014) Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors. Archives of Women's Mental Health June 2014, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 221-228

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Why some babies cry a lot and how it causes later problems

Why some babies cry a lot and how it causes later problems

Anyone who has had a baby that cried excessively can probably attest to the stress and anxiety this can cause.

Obviously people's tolerance for crying babies differs, however excessively crying has been defined as crying for more than 3 hours a day on at least 3 days a week over a period of 3 weeks or more, when that crying is not associated with hunger or physical pain.

A study just published this week by researchers at the Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, at the Technical University of Dresden, Germany looked at 306 expectant mothers and followed them from just after they became aware they were pregnant until 16 weeks after the birth of their child. Two of the factors they measured was the mothers level of anxiety and depression both before and after the birth of the baby. Firstly they found that just over 10% of the mothers reported excessive crying in their infants according to the definition above.

What they discovered was that there was a significant link between the level of anxiety the mother experienced before the birth and the chance of the baby engaging in excessive crying in the 16 weeks after birth. Additionally there was no link with depression and excessive crying.

Another study published in the Journal 'Pediatrics' on the 6th of January this year, by a team of scientists from Finland showed that excessive crying in babies has significant links to later behavioural problems for the child and also (not surprisingly) increased stress for both the mother and father as the child grows.

Mothers who suffer from any form of anxiety during pregnancy are 3-7 times more likely to have a baby that cries excessively than the rest of the population of mothers to be. The researchers recommend early identification, monitoring and treatment of anxiety in all mothers to be.

 

References

Korja, P., etal (2014) Preterm Infant's Early Crying Associated With Child's Behavioral Problems and Parents' Stress. Pediatrics 2014; 133:2 e339-e345; published ahead of print January 6, 2014, doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1204

Petzoldt, J., etal (2014) Maternal anxiety disorders predict excessive infant crying: a prospective longitudinal study. Archives of Disease in Childhood. June 2014 doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305562

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How to be Emotionally Resilient

How to be Emotionally Resilient

In this article I want to have a look at what the research says about what emotional resilience is and what is it that makes someone resilient.
The first thing I usually have to say to people is that emotional resilience is not a lack of feeling or not having any feelings. I think that is called dead.

So what does the research say? Most studies describe emotional resilience as what happens as a result of adapting to a situation regardless of the level of risk, the amount of stress or the amount or level of adversity encountered. By successful adaptation they mean the ability to operate and deal with a situation without being adversely effected by anything which could have a negative emotional impact, which in turn means being able to deal with our emotions.

One set of researchers added that it is a set of beliefs and traits that enable individuals to bounce back from adversity, adapt to situations, thrive, learn and have mature emotional responses across a wide range of situations.

The point I made above about this not being a lack or absence of feeling or emotion is important. Empathy and our very human ability to 'feel' our way through a situation is important here and moves resilience away from being hard, unfeeling, remote or cut off. The ability to be able to operate with other people in difficult situations and to experience and use our normal range of emotions in the middle of an adverse situation suggests something else than just hardness. This includes active coping processes that encompasses what would be termed as psychological adjustment even in a difficult situation.

There is an old saying "Anyone can lead when things are easy. It takes a real leader to lead effectively when the going gets tough."

Self-leadership is a vital component of resilience, which incorporates the ability to be able to function positively with ones self and others, which in turn requires a level of self-esteem, respect and empathy. People like this can often find themselves leading others, particularly in difficult situations.

What is interesting is that a number of studies have found that people with higher levels of life-satisfaction (appreciation), self-esteem and optimism tend also to be the most adaptable and resilient. Indeed one study just published found that resilient people have higher levels of life-satisfaction even though they experience both negative and positive emotions. Research is showing resilience is not a lack of negative emotion or feelings, rather it is the sense of control one has over them.

There is also some evidence to show that people who feel they have control over their emotions also tend to feel more optimistic and enjoy life (life satisfaction). There is therefore a strong connection between resilience and emotion regulation - the ability to control our emotions rather than the emotions controlling us. Not only that, studies are now finding that people with greater levels of emotion regulation ability also tend to have heightened self-esteem.

 

References

Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28.

Burns, R. A., Anstey, K. J., & Windsor, T. D. (2011). Subjective well-being mediates the effects of resilience and mastery on depression and anxiety in a large community sample of young and middle-aged adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 240–248.

Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2007). Affectivity and psychological adjustment across two adult generations: Does pessimistic explanatory style still matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1149–1159.

Lui, Y,. et al., (2014) Affect and self-esteem as mediators between trait resilience and psychological adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences 66 (2014) 92–97

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.

Mak, W. W. S., Ng, I. S. W., & Wong, C. C. Y. (2011). Resilience: Enhancing well-being through the positive cognitive triad. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 610–617.

Park, H., Heppner, P. P., & Lee, D. (2010). Maladaptive coping and self-esteem as mediators between perfectionism and psychological distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 469–474.

Pinquart, M. (2009). Moderating effects of dispositional resilience on associationsbetween hassles and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 53–60.

Siu, O.-L., Hui, C. H., Phillips, D. R., Lin, L., Wong, T., & Shi, K. (2009). A study of resiliency among Chinese health care workers: Capacity to cope with workplace
stress. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 770–776.

Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.

Wagnild, G., & Young, H. M. (1990). Resilience among older women. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 22, 252–255.

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